Sir Ara Darzi
Division of Surgery Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.
Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine. London, UK
In no other time in history has such a rapid transition to the future occurred. What had been a century of evolution from the Industrial Age to the Information Age has, over the past decade, become a revolution. Laparoscopic surgery, which provided the "wake-up call to the information age" as the leading edge technology, has become the accepted standard of medical practice; now even more advanced technologies promise further improvements in the practice of medicine.
It is interesting, but obvious, that the changes that led to the birth of surgery were contingent on the discoveries that ushered in the Industrial Age. And just as the Industrial Age is waning, so too is the golden age of surgery. The Industrial Age is being replaced by the Information Age, and conventional surgery is being replaced by a host of minimally invasive therapies and noninvasive procedures. Because we are currently in the middle of this transition, it is unclear now how the next generation of medicine and surgery will appear, although trends in the technologies are toward low-power, miniaturized, low-cost yet highly "intelligent" systems that eventually will transform surgery from minimally invasive into noninvasive procedures whose development will depend on the emerging Information Age technologies. Laparoscopic (or minimal access) surgery is not an end-point; rather, it is a transitional phase between the radical approach of "open" surgery and the emerging forms of noninvasive image-guided procedures (Interventional MR).
Now is the time that all of these separate elements that the unit is currently active involved in such as laparoscopic surgery, telepresence, virtual reality, digital imaging, and networking are coming together. This lecture will attempt to highlight some of these advances and potentials for the future.
Sir Ara Darzi
Professor Darzi studied medicine in Ireland and qualified from the Royal College of Surgeons. He obtained his fellowship in Surgery from the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and a M.D. degree from Trinity College, Dublin. He was subsequently granted the fellowships of the Royal College of Surgeons of England and The American College of Surgeons. More recently he was awarded an Honorary fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons and Physicians of Glasgow.
Professor Darzi was recently knighted by the Queen as a Knight Commander of the most excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE) in December 2002.
Currently Professor Darzi holds the Chair of Surgery Imperial College, Science, Technology and Medicine and is an Honorary Consultant Surgeon at St. Mary's Hospital NHS trust. He held the office of the Tutor in Minimal Access Surgery at the Royal College of Surgeons in England where he set the national guidelines in education and training in Minimal Access Surgery. He was also a Council member of the Association of Coloproctologist of Great Britain and Ireland, The Association of Endoscopic Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Society of Minimal Invasive Therapy.
Under the leadership of Professor Darzi, the Department is renowned for its achievements in developing new technologies and applying them for advanced clinical training of surgeons and surgical teams. This work has resulted in the development of the Imperial College Surgical Assessment Device. The innovative work of Professor Darzi and his team in the use of simulations and virtual reality is internationally recognised as showing the way forward for surgical education. They were awarded in 2001 the Queen's Anniversary Prize for Excellence in Higher and Further Education in recognition for its achievements in pioneering new technologies to address training requirements for trainee surgeons, surgeons in post and other professionals.
Mixed Signal SoC: A new technology driver in the LSI industry
Dr. Akira Matsuzaw
Matsushita Electric Corp., Japan
Mixed signal SoC are becoming main products in the LSI industry. This talk will review and discuss a feature of this technology and an impact on a variety of LSI technologies. A demand for system level integration needs the integration of analog, as well as digital and memory. Current electronics products; digital communication, digital networking, digital recording, digital displaying, digital imaging, and sensor_ telemetry system are based on the mixed signal technology. A mixed signal CMOS SoC can provide a powerful solution to reduce the cost and area for these digital consumer products and but needs much progress in a variety of LSI technologies; device, circuit, system, and EDA to achieve further success. The scaling rule, which is the most essential principle in LSI technology, has increased the performance in analog characteristics, as well as digital characteristics. Increase of cutoff frequency of CMOS due to scaling has realized over GHz analog circuit with low power consumption. However this results in new issues; low voltage operation, cost increase, and dynamic range reduction. New circuit, device, and integration technologies are needed. In particular, new system level integration technique based on module and packaging technologies might be a strong solution for this issue.
Great progress in circuit design, system design, and EDA technologies are also crucial to address the tough pressure to increasing the development cost and time and complexity. Multidimensional optimization between several performances; speed, frequency, accuracy, dynamic range, power consumption, and area is needed. Also, high quality design which addresses to process fluctuation, device parameter change, voltage change, and temperature change. Increase of accuracy in device modeling, substrate modeling, and interconnection modeling are another important works. High speed mixed signal system simulator is vital. Concurrent simulation and sophisticated use of mixed signal behavioral model and simulation will turn the key for future advance. Top down design flow for mixed signal systems should be established, however the reality must need a quick bottom up flow from actual circuits. The collaboration and optimization over the analog and digital processing will provide effective solution, however toughness of this issue may push us beyond the optimization. Analog and digital compensation and calibration techniques will bring us the powerful solution. Digital assisted analog technology must be the next steps.
Akira Matsuzawa received B.S., M.S., degrees in electronics engineering from Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, in 1976 and 1978. He received the ph. D. degree from the same university on high precision and ultra-high speed A/D converter in 1997. In 1978, he joined Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. Since then, he has been working on research and development of analog and Mixed Signal LSI technology; ultra-high speed ADCs, intelligent CMOS sensor, RF CMOS circuits, digital read-channel technology for DVD system, ultra-high speed interface technologies for metal and optical fibers, testing, boundary scan technology, and CAD technology. He also has a responsible for the development of low power LSI technology, ASIC libraries, analog CMOS devices, SOI devices and circuits, specification of advanced CMOS devices. Currently he is a general manager in advanced LSI technology development center and a part-time teacher of Osaka University and Tohoku University. He served as guest editor in chief twice for special issue on analog LSI technology of IEICE transactions on electronics in 1992 and 1997, vice-program chairman for International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM) in 1999 and 2000, Co-Chairman for Low Power Electronics Workshop in 1995. Currently he served as program committee for analog technology in ISSCC and guest editor for special issues of IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices. He has published 22 technical journal papers and 39 international conference papers. He is co-author of 8 books. He holds 34 registered Japan patents and 65 US and EPC patents. He received R&D100 award and remarkable invention award in 1994. He is IEEE Fellow.
The fusion of biology and engineering: the dawn of a new generation of medicine
Sir Richard Sykes
Rector of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London, UK
In advancing the treatment of disease, the twentieth century undoubtedly belonged to the biopharmaceutical sector. Almost all major diseases have been met, with greater or lesser success, by medicines based on biology and chemistry. Life expectancy and the quality of life of many has vastly improved as a result of such innovations. However the last decade of the century has seen the emergence of new capabilities based on the fusion of biology with other technologies, particularly those within the broad field of engineering. It is now certain that further advances in the management of disease will rely heavily on such fused technological approaches and that step-changes in capability will result.
The new technologies will be applicable at all stages in the search for better healthcare solutions. New tools to speed the discovery of biopharmaceuticals will soon be commonplace; biosensors which guide or tailor treatment are already being piloted; scaffolds on which transplanted cells might grow in structured ways are a reality; and electronic replacements for diseased organs are already in use.
In my talk, I will explore such future possibilities in a critical way and argue that the political and economic framework of healthcare has to change in substantive ways if the true potential of such technological advances is to be realised fully.
Sir Richard Sykes
Sir Richard Sykes became Rector of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine on 3 January 2001.
Sir Richard was awarded a PhD in Microbial Biochemistry from Bristol University and a DSc from the University of London.
He joined Glaxo Research Limited in 1972 as Head of the Antibiotic Research Unit, before moving to The Squibb Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, New Jersey, USA. He became Director of Microbiology in 1979 and an Associate Director of the Institute, and from 1983 to 1986 was Vice President, Infectious and Metabolic Diseases. He rejoined Glaxo in the UK as Deputy Chief Executive of Glaxo Group Research Ltd and was appointed Group Research and Development Director, Glaxo plc and Chairman & Chief Executive of Glaxo Group Research Limited in 1987.
Sir Richard was appointed Deputy Chairman & Chief Executive of Glaxo plc in March 1993, then Chairman & Chief Executive of Glaxo Wellcome plc in May 1997, and was succeeded as Chief Executive by Mr Robert Ingram in October of that year. He stood down as Chairman of GlaxoSmithKline plc in May 2002.
Sir Richard received his knighthood in the 1994 New Year Honours list for services to the pharmaceutical industry. He sits on a number of government and scientific committees and is a Trustee of the Natural History Museum in London and the Board of Directors, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
He served as President of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1998-99, and holds a number of honorary degrees and awards from institutions both in the UK and overseas. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society, an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. He is a Fellow of Imperial College School of Medicine, King's College, London, a Fleming Fellow at Lincoln College, Oxford, an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, an Honorary Fellow of the University of Wales, Cardiff and the University of Central Lancashire.